The problem of involuntary urinary incontinence in women
Urinary incontinence is a very delicate and, unfortunately, quite common problem. But if you start acting on time, you can get rid of such trouble.
What is it?
Urinary incontinence is an involuntary discharge of urine. Normally, a healthy person can control urination. So, the exit from the bladder is surrounded by a special muscle - the sphincter. It closes the hole and prevents the urine from leaving involuntarily. When the bubble overflows, the nerves in the brain receive a signal that triggers the emergence of a urge to urinate.
The person decides to go to the toilet, the sphincter weakens, the walls of the bladder contract and thereby push out its contents. After that, the sphincter again returns to its normal state, that is, it shrinks. And if one of these complex mechanisms is violated, then urinary incontinence occurs.
That is, it can arise from the weakening of supporting structures of the small pelvis( they allow to maintain the normal state of the bladder), malfunctions of the muscular walls of the bladder or because of the failure of the sphincters of the bladder or urethra.
It should be noted that incontinence is most often found in women( according to statistics, about 40% of women of childbearing age experienced its symptoms), and this is due to the peculiarities of the structure of the genitourinary system and its changes after childbirth. Men face such a problem much less often.
There are several types of urinary incontinence:
- Stress or incontinence. In this case, a small amount of urine is released at a voltage, for example, when coughing, laughing, sneezing, abrupt change of position of the body, lifting of weights and other similar actions.
- Urgent or imperative incontinence is characterized by sharp and sudden rather strong urge to urinate and subsequent uncontrolled urination. Sometimes a person just does not sit down to reach the toilet. This disorder is associated with involuntary and active contractions of the walls of the bladder. Desires can occur both at night and during the day, several times.
- Mixed incontinence is a combination of symptoms of imperative and stressful form. The leakage of urine can be observed both with stress, and with sharp urges and even without them. This form is typical for women aged 50-70 years.
- Incontinence of overflow is associated with excessive stretching of the walls of the bladder and its constant overflow. Leakage in this case is observed when filling the cavity of the bladder. That is, if it is completely or at least partially emptied, urine will not be excreted.
- Constant incontinence is due to the weakness of the sphincter. With this form, urine is released in small amounts, but regularly and almost constantly.
Because of what can arise?
Causes of urinary incontinence can be very diverse:
- In women, incontinence develops most often after complicated or multiple births. In this case, there is a stretching or rupture of the muscles of the pelvic floor and the descent of all the pelvic organs that these muscles maintain in their normal state.
- Infectious diseases of the genitourinary system, the most common of which is cystitis.
- Some hormonal disorders. For example, estrogens provide the maintenance of the muscular fibers of the urogenital system in a normal state. And with their shortage, the muscles of the urethra can weaken, which will lead to leakage of urine.
- Menopause or menopause. At these stages, women undergo serious restructuring, which often leads to hormonal imbalance and a shortage of important female hormones, in particular estrogens.
- Neoplasms localized in the bladder.
- Some injuries and diseases of the spine( it is located in the immediate vicinity of the bladder, so it can affect its performance).
- Some congenital abnormalities and abnormalities in the structure of the urogenital system.
- Pelvic trauma or surgery performed on them.
- Some diseases of the nervous system, leading to a violation of the regulation of the process of emptying the bladder.
- Regular or persistent excessive loads( lifting weights, heavy physical work, weight lifting).
- Accepting certain drugs that affect the conduct of nerve impulses. These include adrenoblockers, norepinephrine, mediators of the adrenaline group.
- Adenoma of the prostate gland in men.
How to find out the reasons?
To diagnose and find out the causes of problems can only urologist and after a comprehensive examination, including urinalysis, ultrasound and other diagnostic measures.
How to solve the problem?
The treatment of incontinence will directly depend on the causes that caused it, and elimination should be directed to them.
- Lifestyle changes. You should start with food. It will be necessary to exclude or at least limit the consumption of all drinks and products that have a diuretic effect. These include tea, coffee, berries and so on. You also need to exercise weight control and give up bad habits. Until the causes of incontinence are eliminated, the bladder should be emptied by the hour. In some cases, an effective gradual increase in the interval between urination is effective.
- When weakening the pelvic floor muscles will help Kegel exercises aimed at strengthening them. So, you need to imagine that you really want to go to the toilet and how to hold back your urge in every possible way. Then you should relax and repeat the exercise 10-20 times. To conduct such training should be several times a day until the condition improves.
- Medications that eliminate spasms and promote relaxation of the walls of the bladder can be used. These include Drotaverin, No-shpa, Dicyclomine, Imipramine, and several others.
- With hormonal failures, hormonal drugs are prescribed.
- Antibiotics may be recommended for cystitis.
- In some cases, antidepressants are prescribed.
- Procedures involving the electrostimulation of the muscles of the pelvic floor and aimed at strengthening them.
- Folk remedies can be used, for example, decoctions or infusions of bay leaves, elecampane, sage. Honey and a common onion are also useful.
- With a significant omission of the pelvic organs, surgery will be prescribed to return them to their normal position. If the sphincter is insufficient, an artificial valve can be created. There are also operations to fix the bladder.