Thresher fever

June 01, 2018 03:45 | Disease Treatment
The first description of the disease was given in 1713 by Ramazzini, who observed a dyspnea disease caused by the dust of cereals during fermentation. The explanation of the pathomechanism of this disease is connected with the name of Pepus. According to his definition, this is a disease that is caused by the inhalation of dust from fermented hay, and the symptoms correspond to those of Arthus's reaction in the very distal part of the bronchopulmonary system, i.e., allergic inflammation occurs in the presence of circulating precipitin and an antigen present in the alveoli, which causesby increasing the permeability of capillaries exudation and, possibly, bleeding. Therefore, to refer to this disease, the name "precipitated alveolitis" is suggested. The component C'3 of the complementary system also participates in the initiation of inflammation.

The disease causes spores of thermophilic fungi living in a fermented hay( Ther-mopolyspora polyspora, Micromonospora vulgaris);the optimal growth temperature of these fungi is 40-60 ° C.


Symptoms of

A typical form of the disease begins 3-8 hours after inhaling the hay dust infected with fungi: dyspnea begins, painful cough, fever, crepitation is heard over the lungs, and in severe cases dullness may occur. The state of health is poor, because of lack of appetite, body weight decreases. Sputum can be bloody, sweating and vomiting may occur. Eosinophilia is not present, in the anamnesis asthma or allergic rhinitis usually does not appear, dyspnea is not of an expiratory nature. X-ray pattern in mild cases may be normal, but usually in the middle and lower lobes there is a shadow corresponding to diffuse pulmonary edema. In other cases, there are x-ray signs of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis.

There are already a number of diseases arising from the pathomechanism of the pulmonary Arthus reaction, and thus, despite the difference in the causes that cause them, we consider them to be a syndrome of threshing fever. The common characteristics of these diseases are as follows: 1. Three to 10 hours after the intradermal administration of the antigen, an erythemic infiltration reaction occurs.2. Following the inhalation of the extract, there is a distant bronchospasm or restrictive respiratory failure.3. There are precipitin in the blood serum.4. There is a small fever in the acute stage, there is no eosinophilia.5. In case of repeated and prolonged exposure, pulmonary fibrosis develops during the years.

Pneumonites in childhood, caused by antigens of animal origin, are described. They are less prone to spontaneous progression, and after the exposure stops, the symptoms stop.

Fancier's lung ( disease of individuals containing birds).First of all, people involved in pigeon breeding( "pigeon breeder's lung"), but the disease also occurs among poultry farmers engaged in budgerigar breeders( "budgerigar breeder's lung").The disease can also occur after a short exposure. Cases have been described in children. The disease is caused by the organic dust of fluff and feces of birds;Serum of patients in undiluted form gives precipitation with serum of this bird.

Pituitary snuff disease .In contrast to previous diseases, this is not professional, but medicinal harm. The extract of the pituitary gland used in the form of a snuff powder in some cases causes chronic pneumonitis.

Gainer's disease .Described in infancy and early childhood, a rare chronic pulmonary and gastrointestinal process associated with the consumption of cow's milk. On the basis of pathomechanism, this disease can be referred here, because in the blood can be detected milk precipitin. Milk proteins cause in vitro blastotransformation of lymphocytes. Disease can be considered a peculiar form of milk allergy, in which antigenic fragments absorbed from the intestine cause Arthus' reaction in the lungs. X-ray images show segmental atelectasis as a result of exudation, the disease is characterized by chronic cough, bloody sputum and due to intestinal latent blood loss - iron deficiency anemia. After the termination of feeding by milk it is possible to hope for convalescence.