Sewerage system in the school building
In addition, the scum of humans and domestic animals, as well as rotting household garbage, emit fetid gases that poison the air of both the premises and the adjacent air layers of the atmosphere. These fetid gases exert a depressing effect on the vital activity of the body( weakening of breathing and cardiac activity, a decrease in appetite, headaches, anemia, etc.).
All this makes it possible to remove as quickly as scum of the body, and household garbage and debris, as well as carefully protect the premises and air of settlements from the penetration of fetid gases into them.
In the absence of a central or domestic water supply, it is necessary to arrange simple closets, from which for schools it is necessary to recognize only warm, so-called backlash-closets. The very name suggests that the discharge of impurities( feces, urine) into the cesspool is not a water jet, but a pipe containing air.
In order to prevent the penetration of smells from the backyard closet into the school premises, a proper ventilation device is necessary.
From the cesspool, the exhaust duct, which passes to the roof in the chimney riser, is taken away and adjacent to the chimney of the furnace heating the backlash-closet. Neighborhood of the chimney with the exhaust duct will cause in the last constant heating of air, which will result in unavoidable draft into the dripping of colder air through the openings of the risers both from the toilet room itself and from the cesspool. To ensure uninterrupted ventilation of the backlash-closet and protection of the school against fetid gases, the following requirements must be met: a) the hatch must always be hermetically closed;b) in the exhaust duct, the air temperature should always be kept higher than in the toilet room itself;for this purpose, it is impossible to allow complete cooling of the oven, which heats the latrine;c) in the lavatory room, but it is allowed to open windows or windows during school hours, in order to avoid the possibility of easily creating a current of air from the lavatory to the adjoining premises of the school;d) the lavatory is separated from the adjoining rooms( corridors, classrooms) by an air lock( before the lavatory), which protects against the penetration of foul-smelling gases in the summer months, when no furnace is fired.
Cold latrines, especially those taken from the school building( courtyards), should take place in schools, as their use is associated with children with the danger of colds, and for school placement, unavoidable pollution.
To ensure the hygienic content of the seats, the latter must have a counterweight, automatically moving the seat from the horizontal to the vertical position. In addition, schools must aggressively introduce, so-called, hygienic seats with a cutout in front of the oval. These seats are especially important for the girls' toilets and for kindergartens, in order to prevent out-of-sex infection with gonorrhea.
Due to the fact that the trigger handles in the water closets, due to the ease of their contamination with fecal masses, can serve as a pathway for the spread of intestinal infections and helminthic infestations, schools should give preference to so-called pedal triggers, in which the release of the tank and flushing of the toilet bowl afterThe foot press on the pedal located at the floor.
Floor panels, trigger handles and toilet seats should be washed daily with 0.2% clarified bleach solution. The same solution should be wiped also the door handles leading to the restroom.
The floating sewerage is possible only in the settlements having the central water supply.
Wastewater from the sewage system descends either to irrigation fields or into nearby rivers, in the latter case, the descent must be made downstream of the river considerably below the place of settlement of the inhabitants, and the wastewater must be previously disposed of.
In the absence of sewage, sewage is collected in receivers, or rakes. To protect the soil from impregnation with impurities, the walls of the cesspool are made waterproof. From sewage sheds are periodically taken out by sewage casks.