Plague, symptoms and treatment of plague

June 20, 2018 19:00 | Symptoms And Treatment
The plague is an extremely dangerous bacterial infection that poses a mortal threat to humans. The bacterium Yersinia Pestis causes the disease. Carry bacteria most often fleas. The risk of developing plague in our time is highest in developing countries and regions where minimum sanitation requirements are not met( mainly in Africa).In addition, a certain threat is represented by cattle cemeteries located in the US and Western European countries.

In the Middle Ages millions of people died from the plague. The plague most often affected the inhabitants of Europe, who during the Middle Ages were practically not engaged in their personal hygiene. Contemporaries describing Europe of that time wrote the following: "The narrow streets were breathing with stench and stench, the streams flowed with brooks, plunging everything around into some kind of wild nightmare. Everyone wears wide-brimmed hats, because in the street some mistress from her windowat home, you can pour a slop directly on your head, so everyone wears hats and cloaks, it at least a little saves them from the common dirt. "What is the bath or the bath do not know in any roadside hotel, the impression that people here never even bathe. Everyone breathes a wild stench, kakoit is impossible to imagine or describe , "described a medieval traveler in his European travels.

Streets of medieval European towns were flooded with slops and feces, no baths existed. This explains the high mortality from plague in Europe. In other, more cultured countries( for example, in Russia), plague epidemics did not arise.

In case of plague, immediate medical attention is needed, otherwise the disease is likely to end fatal.

Plague forms

There are three forms of the disease:

Bubonic plague .This form of the disease is the most common. Infection with bubonic plague occurs through a flea bite. It is extremely rare to catch a bubonic plague from a sick person( however, in principle, this form of spread of the disease is possible).Bubonic plague affects the human immune system, causing inflammation of the lymph nodes. In the absence of treatment, the bacterium enters the bloodstream, resulting in the development of a septic or pulmonary form of the plague.

Pulmonary plague .This is the most dangerous form of the disease. Infection with this form of plague often comes from a sick person, by airborne droplets.

Septic plague .With this form of the disease affects the gastrointestinal tract.

It should be noted that all three forms of the disease without treatment most often lead to death.

Spreading the plague

Most people get infected with plague when they bite fleas that previously infected infected animals( rats, mice, cats, rabbits, squirrels, chipmunks, and other animals).Also, a bacterial infection can spread by airborne droplets, when eating the meat of an infected animal. According to the latest data from the National Institute of Health( March 2014, New York, USA), plague can be caused by scratches or bites of infected domestic cats.

An infected person becomes a further spreader of a bacterial infection and can cause an epidemic.

Symptoms of plague

Symptoms of plague directly depend on the form of the disease.

Symptoms of bubonic plague .Symptoms of bubonic plague usually appear two to six days after infection and include:

- fever and chills;

- headache;

- muscle pain;

is a general weakness;

- seizures and seizures.

In addition, a distinctive feature of the bubonic plague is the painful enlargement of the lymph nodes( the so-called buboes) in the groin, under the arms, in the neck. It is the enlarged lymph nodes, buboes, and gave the name to this form of the disease.

Symptoms of pulmonary plague .Symptoms of this form of the disease can appear already in 18-20 hours after infection. The following symptoms are observed:

- shortness of breath;

- chest pain;

- cough;

- fever;

- headache;

is a general weakness;

- bloody or purulent sputum.

Symptoms of septic plague .Symptoms appear 2-7 days after infection. Symptoms can be as follows:

- abdominal pain;

- diarrhea;

- nausea and vomiting;

- fever and chills;

- weakness;

- gastric bleeding;

is a shock.

The course of the septic form of the plague is so rapid that death from the disease can occur earlier than the first symptoms of the disease appear.

If you think you have symptoms that resemble the symptoms of a plague, you should immediately seek medical help. Especially if before that you visited countries where you can catch a plague, or you noticed that you were bitten by fleas.

Diagnosis of plague

The disease is diagnosed if the presence of the bacterium Yersinia Pestis is detected in blood or other body fluids.

Plague treatment

Plague is an extremely dangerous disease for a person's life and requires urgent medical attention. If the patient has a persistent symptomatology of the plague, the course of antibiotic therapy begins without waiting for positive test results. With bubonic plague, death can occur 20 hours after the onset of the first symptoms, and in septic death often occurs at all before the onset of symptoms.

For therapy use the most powerful antibiotics, a set of measures to combat dehydration of the body. Patients with plague should be reliably isolated from other patients. Medical personnel are required to take all precautions to avoid becoming infected with the plague. Any person who has come into contact with a sick pulmonary form of the plague should be isolated and be sure to undergo antibiotic treatment as a preventive measure.

Without antibiotic therapy from bubonic plague, about 50% of infected people die, and from pulmonary plague 100%.Treatment reduces the risk of death by half.

Prevention of plague

First of all, it is necessary to control the effective control of rodents( mice and rats), which are most often tolerated by plague. It is necessary to use special repellents, which will protect against fleas of domestic animals. There is a vaccine against the plague, but its effectiveness in preventing the disease is not proven( according to the WHO in 2012).
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